The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena:
The extant sources agree that Socrates was profoundly ugly, resembling a satyr more than a man—and resembling not at all the statues that turned up later in ancient times and now grace Internet sites and the covers of books.
He had wide-set, bulging eyes that darted sideways and enabled him, like a crab, to see not only what was straight ahead, but what was beside him as well; a flat, upturned nose with flaring nostrils; and large fleshy lips like an ass.
Socrates let his hair grow long, Spartan-style even while Athens and Sparta were at warand went about barefoot and unwashed, carrying a stick and looking arrogant. Something was peculiar about his gait as well, sometimes described as a swagger so intimidating that enemy soldiers kept their distance.
He was impervious to the effects of alcohol and cold weather, but this made him an object of suspicion to his fellow soldiers on campaign. We can safely assume an average height since no one mentions it at alland a strong build, given the active life he appears to have led.
Against the iconic tradition of a pot-belly, Socrates and his companions are described as going hungry Aristophanes, Birds — In the late fifth century B. Although many citizens lived by their labor in a wide variety of occupations, they were expected to spend much of their leisure time, if they had any, busying themselves with the affairs of the city.
Other forms of higher education were also known in Athens: One of the things that seemed strange about Socrates is that he neither labored to earn a living, nor participated voluntarily in affairs of state. Rather, he embraced poverty and, although youths of the city kept company with him and imitated him, Socrates adamantly insisted he was not a teacher Plato, Apology 33a—b and refused all his life to take money for what he did.
The strangeness of this behavior is mitigated by the image then current of teachers and students: Because Socrates was no transmitter of information that others were passively to receive, he resists the comparison to teachers.
Rather, he helped others recognize on their own what is real, true, and good Plato, Meno, Theaetetus —a new, and thus suspect, approach to education. He was known for confusing, stinging and stunning his conversation partners into the unpleasant experience of realizing their own ignorance, a state sometimes superseded by genuine intellectual curiosity.
Socrates claimed to have learned rhetoric from Aspasia of Miletus, the de facto spouse of Pericles Plato, Menexenus ; and to have learned erotics from the priestess Diotima of Mantinea Plato, Symposium.
Socrates was unconventional in a related respect. Athenian citizen males of the upper social classes did not marry until they were at least thirty, and Athenian females were poorly educated and kept sequestered until puberty, when they were given in marriage by their fathers.
It was assumed among Athenians that mature men would find youths sexually attractive, and such relationships were conventionally viewed as beneficial to both parties by family and friends alike.
A degree of hypocrisy or denialhowever, was implied by the arrangement: What was odd about Socrates is that, although he was no exception to the rule of finding youths attractive Plato, Charmides d, Protagoras a—b; Xenophon, Symposium 4.
Socrates also acknowledged a rather strange personal phenomenon, a daimonion or internal voice that prohibited his doing certain things, some trivial and some important, often unrelated to matters of right and wrong thus not to be confused with the popular notions of a superego or a conscience.
The implication that he was guided by something he regarded as divine or semi-divine was all the more reason for other Athenians to be suspicious of Socrates. Socrates was usually to be found in the marketplace and other public areas, conversing with a variety of different people—young and old, male and female, slave and free, rich and poor—that is, with virtually anyone he could persuade to join with him in his question-and-answer mode of probing serious matters.
Socrates pursued this task single-mindedly, questioning people about what matters most, e. He did this regardless of whether his respondents wanted to be questioned or resisted him. Who was Socrates really? The difficulties are increased because all those who knew and wrote about Socrates lived before any standardization of modern categories of, or sensibilities about, what constitutes historical accuracy or poetic license.
All authors present their own interpretations of the personalities and lives of their characters, whether they mean to or not, whether they write fiction or biography or philosophy if the philosophy they write has charactersso other criteria must be introduced for deciding among the contending views of who Socrates really was.
One thing is certain about the historical Socrates: His comedy, Clouds, was produced in when the other two writers of our extant sources, Xenophon and Plato, were infants. In the play, the character Socrates heads a Think-o-Rama in which young men study the natural world, from insects to stars, and study slick argumentative techniques as well, lacking all respect for the Athenian sense of propriety.
The actor wearing the mask of Socrates makes fun of the traditional gods of Athens lines —48,—24mimicked later by the young protagonist, and gives naturalistic explanations of phenomena Athenians viewed as divinely directed lines —33; cf. Theaetetus e, c—d, e—a; Phaedo 96a—a.The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies is an internationally recognized nonprofit organization that promotes practical, evidence-based an argument against nietzsche for accusing socrates as anti life applications best term paper ghostwriters sites for university of behavioral.
Aug 30, · Perhaps bullshitting at least in part is Waite's charge against Nietzsche-though it is a very fascinating and complex argument for which 'bullshitting; just scratches the surface. I think Waite would probably agree that Nietzsche is a bullshitter-though much more than just that.
Collection of famous movie quotes, Aphorisms,life quotes database and sayings. Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin William Lane Craig is a prolific Christian philosopher, apologist, author, and public debater.
He is the best debater – on any topic – that I’ve ever heard. As far as I can tell, he has won nearly all his debates. Gary Gutting is a Notre Dame philosophy professor who thinks that what counts about arguments is whether they “work.” And so his complaint against natural-law arguments for Catholic teachings about sex is that they “no longer work (if they ever did)”.
His New York Times “Opinionator” post of March 1.