An overview of the bubonic plague in the middle ages of europe

Share Your Story Plague is a bacterial disease that is infamous for causing millions of deaths due to a pandemic widespread epidemic during the Middle Ages in Europe, peaking in the 14th century. Many historical references describe the illness, which has been referred to as the Black Death or a "pestilence in the air.

An overview of the bubonic plague in the middle ages of europe

Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling called a bubo, commonly found in the groin, but may occur in the armpits or neck, most often near the site of the initial infection bite or scratch Pain may occur in the area before the swelling appears Gangrene of the extremities such as toes, fingers, lips and tip of the nose.

Additional symptoms include extreme fatigue, gastrointestinal problems, lenticulae black dots scattered throughout the bodydelirium, and coma. Cause Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis infected with the Yersinia pestis bacterium which appears as a dark mass in the gut.

The foregut of this flea is blocked by a Y.

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Bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic systemusually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsylla cheopis the rat flea. In very rare circumstances, as in the septicemic plaguethe disease can be transmitted by direct contact with infected tissue or exposure to the cough of another human.

The flea is parasitic on house and field rats, and seeks out other prey when its rodent hosts die. The bacteria remain harmless to the flea, allowing the new host to spread the bacteria. The bacteria form aggregates in the gut of infected fleas and this results in the flea regurgitating ingested blood, which is now infected, into the bite site of a rodent or human host.

Once established, bacteria rapidly spread to the lymph nodes and multiply.

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As the disease progresses, the lymph nodes can haemorrhage and become swollen and necrotic. Bubonic plague can progress to lethal septicemic plague in some cases. The plague is also known to spread to the lungs and become the disease known as the pneumonic plague.

Diagnosis Laboratory testing is required in order to diagnose and confirm plague. Ideally, confirmation is through the identification of Y. Confirmation of infection can be done by examining serum taken during the early and late stages of infection. To quickly screen for the Y.

Swollen lymph nodes buboes characteristic of bubonic plague, a fluid sample can be taken from them with a needle. Blood Lungs Treatment Several classes of antibiotics are effective in treating bubonic plague. These include aminoglycosides such as streptomycin and gentamicintetracyclines especially doxycyclineand the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin.

An overview of the bubonic plague in the middle ages of europe

Other treatments include oxygen, intravenous fluids, and respiratory support. People who have had contact with anyone infected by pneumonic plague are given prophylactic antibiotics. Plague of Justinian The first recorded epidemic affected the Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire and was named the Plague of Justinian after emperor Justinian Iwho was infected but survived through extensive treatment.

In the spring ofthe plague arrived in Constantinople, working its way from port city to port city and spreading around the Mediterranean Sealater migrating inland eastward into Asia Minor and west into Greece and Italy.

Procopius, in his work Secret History, declared that Justinian was a demon of an emperor who either created the plague himself or was being punished for his sinfulness. People who died of bubonic plague in a mass grave from — in MartiguesFrance In the Late Middle Ages — Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit inkilling a third of the European human population.

Some historians believe that society subsequently became more violent as the mass mortality rate cheapened life and thus increased warfare, crime, popular revolt, waves of flagellants, and persecution. Chinese records also showed a huge outbreak in Mongolia in the early s. The epidemic began with an attack that Mongols launched on the Italian merchants' last trading station in the region, Caffa in the Crimea.

When spring arrived, the Italian merchants fled on their ships, unknowingly carrying the Black Death. Carried by the fleas on rats, the plague initially spread to humans near the Black Sea and then outwards to the rest of Europe as a result of people fleeing from one area to another.

Third pandemic Main article: Third plague pandemic The plague resurfaced for a third time in the midth century. Like the two previous outbreaks, this one also originated in Eastern Asiamost likely in Yunnan Province of China, where there are several natural plague foci.

In the city of Cantonbeginning in Januarythe disease killed 80, people by June. Daily water-traffic with the nearby city of Hong Kong rapidly spread the plague there, killing over 2, within two months. This law was originally signed into existence by President Chester A. The Chinese Exclusion Act was supposed to last for ten years but was renewed in with the Geary Act and subsequently made permanent in during the outbreak of plague in Chinatown, San Francisco.

The last major outbreak in the United States occurred in Los Angeles in[31] though the disease is still present in wild rodents, and can be passed to humans that come in contact with them.

Ina plague outbreak in five Indian states caused an estimated infections including 52 deaths and triggered a large migration of Indians within India as they tried to avoid the plague. From 1, to 2, cases are conservatively reported per year to the WHO.

Unusually most of the cases were pneumonic rather than bubonic.Bubonic Panic: When Plague Invaded America by Gail Jarrow Calkins Creek, Grades 5 and up Today I'm pleased to kick off the Bubonic Panic blog tour!

Gail Jarrow rounds out her "Deadly Diseases" trilogy with a riveting account of how the plague came to the United States at the turn of the century. In the Middle Ages, plague was known as the "Black Death." It caused the death of 60% of the population of Europe during a pandemic (an epidemic of human disease that .

Renaissance, (French: “Rebirth”) period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages and conventionally held to have been characterized by a surge of interest in Classical scholarship and values.

The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents, the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the decline of the.

about ,, years ago early seaweed formed.. Molecular clock methods indicate that red and green algae arose around 1,,, years ago, and the secondary symbiosis that eventually led to the chromists occurred around 1,,, years ago during the late Mesoproterzoic era, after the earth's transition to a more highly oxygenated atmosphere with an ozone screen.

In the Late Middle Ages (–) Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit .

BBC - History - British History in depth: Black Death

DAILY LIFE IN 17TH CENTURY ENGLAND. By Tim Lambert. SOCIETY IN 17th CENTURY ENGLAND. During the 17th century the population of England and Wales grew steadily.

The Black Death