Bokoch, Hyunil Jo, James R.
Poor diet increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular mortality in this population3. Indeed, all classes of SMI show heightened levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, which is linked to worse prognosis in these conditions. Participants who fell into multiple psychiatric categories were assigned hierarchically to only one, in this order: Healthy controls were derived from all UK Biobank participants who had no indication of any previous or present psychotic or mood disorder.
Individuals with neurological conditions known to affect memory recall were excluded from all groups. Diet was assessed using a validated computerized questionnaire, the Oxford WebQ7.
Missing individual data points were imputed as the mean average across all available time points from that individual. A total of 69, eligible UK Biobank subjects mean age Multivariable linear regression was used to examine differences in total daily energy intake and each macronutrient between the SMI and control samples.
Analyses were adjusted for gender and age. The greatest differences in diet were observed for the schizophrenia sample. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to adjust for ethnicity, body mass index BMIeducation and social deprivation.
This did not substantially alter the overall findings. Multiple linear regression was used to examine if SMI was positively associated with DII scores, adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, social deprivation, education and total energy intake.
In terms of both total caloric intake and excess obesogenic nutrients, the worst dietary patterns were observed among people with schizophrenia. This is a notable finding, as these individuals also have significantly higher rates of metabolic disorders and greater premature mortality than individuals with other classes of SMI3, 9, indicating that diet could be a key factor influencing these outcomes.
Indeed, dynamic weight change algorithms predict that each kj of excess energy intake per day will eventually lead to at least 1 kg increase in body weight Not only does excess caloric, carbohydrate and fat intake increase inflammation, but the concomitant increase in adipose tissue also enhances chronic, systemic inflammation.
The degree to which the heightened systemic inflammation observed in SMIs is attributable to dietary factors needs to be clarified. Sufficiently sized cohort studies, using detailed dietary and psychiatric data alongside biomarkers of inflammation, can provide new insights into of the role of diet in SMIs.
Future work should also aim to establish the extent to which heightened dietary inflammation in SMIs independently contributes to the poor physical, psychological and neurocognitive outcomes observed in these populations, which represent a significant public health challenge.
This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource application no.🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes.
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