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William Lyon Mackenzie KingPrime Minister of Canada —, —, — Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local, provincial and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus and when in power, the national cabinet but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure.
There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that successfully brought the party to power in ; however, once in power, no efforts were made to create a formal national organization outside of parliament.
As a result of the party's defeats in the and federal electionsLaurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: However, the advisory committee became dominated by members of parliament and all three bodies were underfunded and competed with both local and provincial Liberal associations and the national caucus for authority.
The party did organize the national party's second convention in to elect William Lyon Mackenzie King as Laurier's successor Canada's first ever leadership conventionyet following the party's return to power in the federal election the nascent national party organizations were eclipsed by powerful ministers and local party organizations largely driven by patronage.
As a result of both the party's defeat in the federal electionand the Beauharnois bribery scandal which highlighted the need for distance between the Liberal Party's political wing and campaign fundraising,  a central coordinating organization, the National Liberal Federation, was created in with Vincent Massey as its first president.
The new organization allowed individuals to directly join the national Liberal Party for the first time. With the Liberals return to power the national organization languished except for occasional national committee meetings, such as in when Mackenzie King called a meeting of the federation consisting of the national caucus and up to seven voting delegates per province to approve a new platform for the party in anticipation of the end of World War II and prepare for a post-war election.
With the defeat of the Liberals in the federal election and in particularreformers argued for the strengthening of the national party organization so it would not be dependent on provincial Liberal parties and patronage. A national executive and Council of presidents, consisting of the presidents of each Liberal riding association, were developed to give the party more co-ordination and national party conventions were regularly held in biennially where previously they had been held infrequently.
Over time, provincial Liberal parties in most provinces were separated from provincial wings of the federal party and in a number of cases disaffiliated. In Imperial Conferences held throughout the s, Canadian Liberal governments often took the lead in arguing that the United Kingdom and the dominions should have equal status, and against proposals for an 'imperial parliament' that would have subsumed Canadian independence.
After the King—Byng Affair ofthe Liberals argued that the Governor General of Canada should no longer be appointed on the recommendation of the British government. The decisions of the Imperial Conferences were formalized in the Statute of Westminsterwhich was actually passed inthe year after the Liberals lost power.
The Liberals also promoted the idea of Canada being responsible for its own foreign and defence policy. Initially, it was Britain which determined external affairs for the dominion.
It was also Laurier who first proposed the creation of a Canadian Navy in Mackenzie King recommended the appointment by Governor General Lord Byng of Vincent Massey as the first Canadian ambassador to Washington inmarking the Liberal government's insistence on having direct relations with the United States, rather than having Britain act on Canada's behalf.
Liberals and the social safety net[ edit ] Lester B. PearsonPrime Minister of Canada — In the period just before and after the Second World Warthe party became a champion of 'progressive social policy'. Bowing to popular pressure, he introduced the mother's allowance, a monthly payment to all mothers with young children.
He also reluctantly introduced old age pensions when J. Woodsworth required it in exchange for his Co-operative Commonwealth Federation party's support of King's minority government. In the and federal elections, St. Laurent led the Liberal Party to two large majority governments.
As Prime Minister he oversaw the joining of Newfoundland in Confederation as Canada's tenth province, he established equalization payments to the provinces, and continued with social reform with improvements in pensions and health insurance.
Canada enjoyed economic prosperity during St. Laurent's premiership and wartime debts were paid off. The Pipeline Debate proved the Liberal Party's undoing.
Their attempt to pass legislation to build a natural gas pipeline from Alberta to central Canada was met with fierce disagreement in the House of Commons. Laurent resigned as Prime Minister and Liberal leader.
Pearson was easily elected Liberal leader at the party's leadership convention. However, only months after becoming Liberal leader, Pearson led the party into the federal election that saw Diefenbaker's Progressive Conservatives win the largest majority government, by percentage of seats, in Canadian history.
Pearson remained Liberal leader during this time and in the election managed to reduce Diefenbaker to a minority government. In the election Pearson led the Liberal Party back to victory, forming a minority government.
Pearson served as Prime Minister for five years, winning a second election in While Pearson's leadership was considered poor and the Liberal Party never held a majority of the seats in parliament during his premiership, he left office in with an impressive legacy.
The party hoped the policy would transform Canada into a country where English and French Canadians could live together, and allow Canadians to move to any part of the country without having to lose their language.
Such actions, however, served as rallying cries for sovereigntists and alienated many Francophone Quebeckers. The other primary legacy of the Trudeau years has been financial. Others, such as John Turnersupported the failed Meech Lake and Charlottetown Constitutional Accordswhich would have recognized Quebec as a "distinct society" and would have increased the powers of the provinces to the detriment of the federal government.
Trudeau stepped down as Prime Minister and party leader inas the Liberals were slipping in polls. However, the party was hurt by numerous patronage appointmentsmany of which Turner had made supposedly in return for Trudeau retiring early.
Also, they were unpopular in their traditional stronghold of Quebec because of the constitution repatriation which excluded that province.The discovery of insulin essay; Gender issues in society essays for scholarships; How to write a piano song; Sir issac newtons life essay; Effects of adolf hitler on caninariojana.com On July 13, , Wisconsin Rep.
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