Scope[ edit ] Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large.
Further, the benefits and drawbacks vary depending on the situation at hand. Effective therapy hinges upon therapists using an appropriate level of influence with regard to the client's current state of mind.
With highly resistant clients, it is critical to be on target with the method of influence you use relative to their current degree of acceptance of your approach.
Resistance is created when the method of influence is mismatched with the client's current propensity to accept the manner in which the influence is delivered. For example, although there is definitely a time and place for direct confrontation, it is usually not in the initial stages of counseling.
Confrontation delivered early in the process will likely be incongruous with most clients' initial inclinations toward accepting such a forceful method of influence. To be effective, direct confrontation should only be employed after considerable rapport and respect have been established and other approaches exhausted.
This is not to say how to write a rogerian outline therapists are not to influence clients. Indeed, it is impossible not to influence. The key is to understand the benefits of each method of influence and to then maximize the use of diverse methods of influence at various times during the therapeutic process.
More specifically, in order to manage resistance, you must incorporate the most fitting method of influence relative to the dynamics that are present in the therapeutic relationship at a particular point in time.
Effective therapists are constantly adjusting and matching their method of influence with their client's current state of mind. This is perhaps why research continues to support the idea that the therapeutic relationship is the most critical factor in successful therapeutic outcomes. When the method of influence used is incongruous with the client's current state of mind, what is commonly labeled as "resistance" occurs.
If you deal with clients who display much reluctance to change, it is important to understand the relationship dynamics at work. For every force there is an equal and opposite counterforce. In a model in which overcoming resistance potentially becomes a contest, the client will often win.
Here, the method of influence utilized is likely mismatched with the client's current inclination to accept that method. In order to subvert therapist influence, clients must expend energy as they focus on not coming under another's control i. In reaction to clients' reluctance to accept their influence, most therapists try even harder to influence.
As therapists' attempts to influence increase, so do the clients' rationales and inner needs to circumvent this influence. A vicious cycle is formed that is fueled by the escalating attempts of therapists and clients to not be influenced by each other. Often, what originated from an inappropriate method of influencing intensifies into an arduous battle of wits.
In such relationships, it is as if the client and the therapists are in a tug of war with each pulling harder on his end of the rope in order to drag the other across the line into submission.
Each is exerting considerable effort to force the other to give in and agree with the opposing perspective. The result is that clients are reinforced by the secondary gain of not having to face their struggles and change, and therapists are exhausted and approaching burnout in their work.
The way out of this cycle is to avoid directly fighting clients' positions. Stop pulling the rope and join clients on their side of the line. Upon doing this, there is no reason for clients to focus on, and expend energy to oppose, therapist influence.
This same energy is now free to be used for other pursuits. Once this is accomplished, a more suitable method of influence can be established.
Typically, at such junctures, therapeutic influence that is indirectly presented has a much better possibility of shifting perspectives and behavior.
Clients only have so much energy to focus on the difficult struggles before them. Therapists do not need to do anything that diminishes the amount of energy available for the therapeutic work at hand.
When therapists apply mismatched methods of influence with clients, they increase resistance and decrease the energy available for change. For those seeking additional study of models of resistance from this general perspective, I suggest you begin by reading Cowan and Presbury The first component is to understand resistance from a social interaction perspective.
The groundwork for this was presented in the previous discussion. The second element is to learn to replace conceptualizations that inaccurately label client dynamics as resistance with more precise conceptualizations that provide a useful framework from which to proceed.
When you view resistance from the perspective of these two components, you quickly realize that the word "resistance" is frequently used when one of two things is occurring. The first is that we, as therapists, do not have a technique or approach available at the moment to use with a particular client situation.
If we had a technique to deal with every interaction, would we need to label clients as resistant? The second is that we use the word when we do not fully understand the world of the client and, thus, we do not understand why the client is responding in the manner in which she is.1 This second epistle, beloved, I now write unto you; in both which I stir up your pure minds by way of remembrance: 2 that ye may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us the apostles of the Lord and Saviour: 4 and saying, Where is the.
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Most citations of Maslow's hierarchy of needs list only five levels. This is particularly true of management books and hand-outs.
Very few sources that I have seen list the full range of seven need levels that Maslow outlines and explains in his revision .
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