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History[ edit ] In the s, the Western European countries began plans to introduce colour television, and were faced with the problem that the NTSC standard demonstrated several weaknesses, including colour tone shifting under poor transmission conditions, which became a major issue considering Europe's geographical and weather-related particularities.
The goal was to provide a colour TV standard for the European picture frequency of 50 fields per second 50 hertzand finding a way to eliminate the problems with NTSC.
When asked, why the system was named "PAL" and not "Bruch" the inventor answered that a "Bruch system" would probably not have sold very well "Bruch" lit. The first broadcasts began in the United Kingdom in Junefollowed by West Germany late that year.
Telefunken was later bought by the French electronics manufacturer Thomson. Colour encoding[ edit ] Both the PAL and the NTSC system use a quadrature amplitude modulated subcarrier carrying the chrominance information added to the luminance video signal to form a composite video baseband signal.
The frequency of this subcarrier is 4. The SECAM system, on the Partnersuche eritrea hand, uses a frequency modulation scheme on its two line alternate colour subcarriers 4. The name "Phase Alternating Line" describes the way that the phase of part of the colour information on the video signal is reversed with each line, which automatically corrects phase errors in the transmission of the signal by cancelling them out, at the expense of vertical frame colour resolution.
Lines where the colour phase is reversed compared to NTSC are often called PAL or phase-alternation lines, which justifies one of the expansions of the acronym, while the other lines are called NTSC lines.
Early PAL receivers relied on the human eye to do that cancelling; however, this resulted in a comb-like effect known as Hanover bars on larger phase errors.
Thus, most receivers now use a chrominance analog delay linewhich stores the received colour information on each line of display; an average of the colour information from the previous line and the current line is then used to drive the picture tube.
The effect is that phase errors result in saturation changes, which are less objectionable than the equivalent hue changes of NTSC. A minor drawback is that the vertical colour resolution is poorer than the NTSC system's, but since the human eye also has a colour resolution that is much lower than its brightness resolution, this effect is not visible.
Oscillogram of composite PAL signal—one frame. Oscillogram of composite PAL signal—several lines. Oscillogram of composite PAL signal—two lines. The original colour carrier is required by the colour decoder to recreate the colour difference signals.
Since the carrier is not transmitted with the video information it has to be generated locally in the receiver. In order that the phase of this locally generated signal can match the transmitted information, a 10 cycle burst of colour subcarrier is added to the video signal shortly after the line sync pulse, but before the picture information, during the so-called back porch.
This swinging burst enables the colour decoder circuitry to distinguish the phase of the R-Y vector which reverses every line. Interlacing frames gives a smoother motion with half the frame rate. NTSC is used with a frame rate of 60i or 30p whereas PAL generally uses 50i or 25p ; both use a high enough frame rate to give the illusion of fluid motion.
Film conversions for NTSC instead use 3: This maintains the runtime of the film and preserves the original audio, but may cause worse interlacing artifacts during fast motion. NTSC receivers have a tint control to perform colour correction manually. If this is not adjusted correctly, the colours may be faulty.
The PAL standard automatically cancels hue errors by phase reversal, so a tint control is unnecessary yet Saturation control can be more useful.
Chrominance phase errors in the PAL system are cancelled out using a 1H delay line resulting in lower saturation, which is much less noticeable to the eye than NTSC hue errors.
However, the alternation of colour information— Hanover bars —can lead to picture grain on pictures with extreme phase errors even in PAL systems, if decoder circuits are misaligned or use the simplified decoders of early designs typically to overcome royalty restrictions.
In most cases such extreme phase shifts do not occur. This effect will usually be observed when the transmission path is poor, typically in built up areas or where the terrain is unfavourable. In the early s some Japanese set manufacturers developed decoding systems to avoid paying royalties to Telefunken.
The Telefunken licence covered any decoding method that relied on the alternating subcarrier phase to reduce phase errors.
One solution was to use a 1H analog delay line to allow decoding of only the odd or even lines. For example, the chrominance on odd lines would be switched directly through to the decoder and also be stored in the delay line.
Then, on even lines, the stored odd line would be decoded again. Such systems suffered hue errors and other problems inherent in NTSC and required the addition of a manual hue control. Its creator, Henri de France, in search of a response to known NTSC hue problems, came up with ideas that were to become fundamental to both European systems, namely: SECAM applies those principles by transmitting alternately only one of the U and V components on each TV line, and getting the other from the delay line.
QAM is not required, and frequency modulation of the subcarrier is used instead for additional robustness sequential transmission of U and V was to be reused much later in Europe's last "analog" video systems: SECAM is free of both hue and saturation errors.
It is not sensitive to phase shifts between the color burst and the chrominance signal, and for this reason was sometimes used in early attempts at color video recording, where tape speed fluctuations could get the other systems into trouble.
In the receiver, it did not require a quartz crystal which was an expensive component at the time and generally could do with lower accuracy delay lines and components.Find out how, with deep application know-how, extensive industry experience, and worldwide presence, we can deliver tailor-made process automation solutions in your most challenging environments.
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