The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists generally agree that it came to the English language from Middle Frenchbut there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages, generally.
Historical approaches[ edit ] The first psychological research conducted on prejudice occurred in the s.
This research attempted to prove white supremacy. One article from which reviewed 73 studies on race concluded that the studies seemed "to indicate the mental superiority of the white race". In the s and s, this perspective began to change due to the increasing concern about anti-Semitism.
At the time, theorists viewed prejudice as pathological and they thus looked for personality syndromes linked with racism.
Theodor Adorno believed that prejudice stemmed from an authoritarian personality ; he believed that people with authoritarian personalities were the most likely to be prejudiced against groups of lower status. He described authoritarians as "rigid thinkers who obeyed authority, saw the world as black and whiteand enforced strict adherence to social rules and hierarchies".
Allport claimed that prejudice is a natural and normal process for humans. According to him, "The human mind must think with the aid of categories… Once formed, categories are the basis for normal prejudgment.
We cannot possibly avoid this process. Orderly living depends upon it. According to Marilyn Brewerprejudice "may develop not because outgroups are hated, but because positive emotions such as admiration, sympathy, and trust are reserved for the ingroup.
The ultimate attribution error occurs when ingroup members " 1 attribute negative outgroup behavior to dispositional causes more than they would for identical ingroup behaviorand 2 attribute positive outgroup behavior to one or more of the following causes: Her theory defines prejudices as being social defences, distinguishing between an obsessional character structure, primarily linked with anti-semitism, hysterical characters, primarily associated with racism, and narcissistic characters, linked with sexism.
Social psychologists Quattrone and Jones conducted a study demonstrating this with students from the rival schools Princeton University and Rutgers University.
Then the participants were asked to guess what percentage of the videotaped students' classmates would choose the same. Participants predicted a much greater similarity between out-group members the rival school than between members of their in-group.
The justification-suppression model of prejudice was created by Christian Crandall and Amy Eshleman.
This conflict causes people to search for justification for disliking an out-group, and to use that justification to avoid negative feelings cognitive dissonance about themselves when they act on their dislike of the out-group.
The realistic conflict theory states that competition between limited resources leads to increased negative prejudices and discrimination.
This can be seen even when the resource is insignificant. In the Robber's Cave experiment,  negative prejudice and hostility was created between two summer camps after sports competitions for small prizes.
The hostility was lessened after the two competing camps were forced to cooperate on tasks to achieve a common goal. ITT posits that outgroup prejudice and discrimination is caused when individuals perceive an outgroup to be threatening in some way.
ITT defines four threats: Realistic threats Intergroup anxiety Negative stereotypes Realistic threats are tangible, such as competition for a natural resource or a threat to income.
Symbolic threats arise from a perceived difference in cultural values between groups or a perceived imbalance of power for example, an ingroup perceiving an outgroup's religion as incompatible with theirs. Intergroup anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness experienced in the presence of an outgroup or outgroup member, which constitutes a threat because interactions with other groups cause negative feelings e.
Understanding Prejudice and Discrimination, a new McGraw-Hill anthology on prejudice edited by Scott Plous of Wesleyan University. Social psychology is the scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. Listed below are links to social psychology topics such as prejudice and discrimination, gender, culture, social influence, interpersonal relations, group behavior, aggression, and more. ALBERT AND ETHEL HERZSTEIN FOUNDATION. The Foundation focuses its grantmaking on programs and projects that honor the ideals of personal responsibility and resourcefulness in a free society, limited government, self-sufficiency, the right of individuals to enjoy a quality life, and the importance of providing opportunities for .
Negative stereotypes are similarly threats, in that individuals anticipate negative behaviour from outgroup members in line with the perceived stereotype for example, that the outgroup is violent. Often these stereotypes are associated with emotions such as fear and anger.
ITT differs from other threat theories by including intergroup anxiety and negative stereotypes as threat types. Additionally, social dominance theory states that society can be viewed as group-based hierarchies.
In competition for scarce resources such as housing or employment, dominant groups create prejudiced "legitimizing myths" to provide moral and intellectual justification for their dominant position over other groups and validate their claim over the limited resources.
Prejudice can be a central contributing factor to depression. Paul Bloom argues that while prejudice can be irrational and have terrible consequences, it is natural and often quite rational. This is because prejudices are based on the human tendency to categorise objects and people based on prior experience.RACE, CULTURE, AND EQUALITY 1 by Thomas Sowell.
During the 15 years that I spent researching and writing my recently completed trilogy on racial and cultural issues, 2 I was struck again and again with how common huge disparities in income and wealth have been for centuries, in countries around the world-- and yet how each country regards its own particular disparities as unusual, if not unique.
Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination (Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology Series) [Stuart Oskamp] on caninariojana.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Finding ways to reduce prejudice and discrimination is the central issue in attacking racism in our society.
Yet this book is almost unique among scientific .
The Society for Research in Child Development is a membership association that advances developmental science & promotes its use to improve human lives. While overt prejudice is now much less prevalent than in decades past, subtle prejudice - prejudice that is inconspicuous, indirect, and often unconscious - continues to pervade our society.
Social Studies Research and Practice caninariojana.com Volume 2, Number 2, Summer ISSN: Prejudice Reduction through Multicultural Education.
ALBERT AND ETHEL HERZSTEIN FOUNDATION. The Foundation focuses its grantmaking on programs and projects that honor the ideals of personal responsibility and resourcefulness in a free society, limited government, self-sufficiency, the right of individuals to enjoy a quality life, and the importance of providing opportunities for .