Among some states with low overall teen birth rates, some counties have high teen birth rates. For example, young women living in foster care are more than twice as likely to become pregnant than those not in foster care. The Importance of Prevention Teen pregnancy and childbearing bring substantial social and economic costs through immediate and long-term impacts on teen parents and their children. CDC supports the implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs that have been shown, in at least one program evaluation, to have a positive effect on preventing teen pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, or sexual risk behaviors.
See Article History Liver cancer, any of several forms of disease characterized by tumours in the liver ; benign liver tumours remain in the liver, whereas malignant tumours are, by definition, cancerous. Most malignant liver tumours are hepatomas, also called hepatocellular carcinomas HCCs.
HCCs are relatively rare in the United States, accounting for between 2 and 4 percent of all cancers, but are common in other parts of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asiaand China.
These tumours begin in the functional cells of the liver and account for 80 to 90 percent of all liver cancers. The remaining cancers develop from blood vessels hemangiosarcomassmall bile ducts cholangiocarcinomasor immature liver cells hepatoblastomas.
Hepatoblastomas occur primarily in children. Treatment and prognosis for liver cancers vary, depending on the type and stage, or degree, of advancement. Causes and symptoms The causes of liver cancer vary and in many cases remain unknown, but several factors have been identified that increase the risk of developing the disease.
Previous infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C viruses is clearly linked to liver cancer, as is cirrhosis of the liver. Exposure to several chemicals also increases cancer risk; these chemicals include vinyl chloride commonly used in plastics manufacturingthorium dioxide once used with certain X-ray proceduresaflatoxin a poison produced by a fungus of spoiled peanuts and certain grain productsand arsenic.
Use of anabolic steroids and oral contraceptives may increase the risk of certain types of liver cancer. Other illnesses such as gallstones, chronic inflammation of the colon or gallbladderand certain parasitic infections are also risk factors. Symptoms of liver cancer often remain undetected until the disease has progressed to an advanced stage.
Symptoms include abdominal pain or swelling, loss of appetite, unexplained weight loss, an early sense of fullness during meals, or jaundice. Individuals with chronic liver diseases may experience a sudden worsening of their overall condition.
Laboratory tests may reveal elevated levels of calcium in the blood, low blood sugar, or other signs of liver dysfunction. Diagnosis and prognosis Early diagnosis of liver disorders usually involves a blood test for abnormal liver function. Special tests for two specific antigens in the blood may also indicate liver cancer.
If cancer is suspected, a biopsy will be done either during exploratory surgery or by inserting a thin needle into the liver. The cancer is further diagnosed by means of imaging techniques such as computed tomography CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging MRIand ultrasound.
In some cases an X-ray procedure called angiography will be used to examine blood vessels in and around the liver. A physician can also directly examine the liver with a laparoscopea flexible tube with a lens on the end that is inserted through an incision in the abdomen.
Once liver cancer has been diagnosed, its stage is then determined to indicate how far the cancer has progressed. Some tumours that are localized, or found in a confined area of the liver, may be completely removed. Other localized cancers cannot be completely removed, as the resultant loss of remaining liver function would be fatal.
Advanced cancer has either invaded a large portion of the liver or spread metastasized to distant tissues in the body. Whereas survivability of most cancers is expressed in terms of a five-year survival rate, the rapid course of this disease following appearance of symptoms has resulted in use of a three-year survival rate.
This rate is fairly high if the cancer is localized and can be completely removed by surgery. If the cancer is localized but inoperable, the rate is lower, and in more advanced stages of liver cancer the three-year survival is low. Unfortunately, overall survival from liver cancer is lower than that for many other types of cancer because it is not usually detected in its early stages.
Treatment Surgery can cure liver cancer, but only when the cancer is limited to a region small enough to permit its removal while leaving enough of the liver behind to perform normal functions. Surgery is not curative for cancers that have spread beyond the liver and is not usually recommended for patients with cirrhosis.
When surgery is not an option, some local tumours can be destroyed either by being frozen or by being injected with alcohol.
Other cancers may be starved by blocking nearby blood vessels. This procedure, however, carries inherent risks because it also blocks blood flow to healthy liver tissue.Teenage pregnancy is a serious issue that may seriously impact the future of a young woman.
Any teen pregnancy will be a challenge as teens typically lack. 1 A study of the high rate of teenage Pregnancy in high schools in the ILembe District. By. THANDIWE ROSE NKWANYANA. SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF. The teen birth rate in the U.S.
is at a record low, dropping below 25 births per 1, teen females for the first time since the government began collecting consistent data on births to teens ages , according to a new report from the National Center for Health Statistics..
Nonwhite and younger teens have led the way in declining birth rates in recent years. There were nearly , babies born in to teen moms, according to the U.S. Department of Health & Human caninariojana.com 77 percent of these pregnancies were unplanned.
A teenage pregnancy.
Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Links with this icon indicate that you are leaving the CDC website.. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest . High School Completion. Teen pregnancy and parenting contribute significantly to high school drop-out rates among teen girls. Thirty percent of teenage girls who drop out of high school cite pregnancy or parenthood as a primary reason. This rate is even higher for Hispanic and African-American teens, at nearly 40 percent. Teenage pregnancy is a serious issue that may seriously impact the future of a young woman. Any teen pregnancy will be a challenge as teens typically lack.
Teenage pregnancy is a situation which involves female adolescents.A teenage female is a female between 13 to 19 in age. But sometimes preteens (people under 13) can become pregnant as well.
The fact that teenagers become pregnant is related to many factors. Although teen pregnancy rates have declined in recent decades, the U.S.
rate is still one of the highest in the developed world. By tracking the changing health care landscape and providing quality data and policy analysis, the Guttmacher Institute strives to shed light on U.S.
teen pregnancy and on the social and economic factors that contribute to it.